The current world situation and China's foreign policy strategy« Back
I am very pleased to be able today to exchange views on scientific issues with scientists and specialists of the National Academy of Sciences of Belorussia. My presentation contains questions about the current world situation, the cultural-civilizational dialogue and global governance, as well as on China's foreign policy strategy.
In China, such ancient poems are widespread and commonly understood: "From year to year the same blossom flower and people change over the years". The same changeable and complex is the world situation.
The past year has shown us such examples. First, the global financial and economic crisis, affected almost all countries of the world, has gradually weakened, but not yet completed. On the recovery of the fragile global economy time is needed, with many remaining negative consequences of the crisis, including disturbing the "currency war". Second, the only superpower in the world, the United States, continuing the trend of the decline, with the same hegemonic ambitions have made some adjustments to its policy, but the effects are small. Third, the relationship between the major powers is constantly regulated, in particular significantly increased status newborn major market countries in cooperation and competition with the traditional developed world, and multipolar world architecture is showing a new trend. Fourth, around the prevention of nuclear proliferation and counter-terrorism a number of "hot spots" at the regional level (for example nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran) remains for a long time in the spotlight, and complicates the situation in the region. Moreover, the new "hot spots" continuously appear in West Asia and North Africa. In this context, it is urgently needed to strengthen the role of the UN and other relevant regional organizations in maintaining peace.
Looking back over the past 20 years after the Cold War, we see that during the first decade, 90’s of the last century the international situation has developed mainly around the collapse of the USSR superpowers. The United States and other Western countries have tried to benefit from the collapse of the Soviet Union and to expand it. To this end, they have accelerated the spread of NADO on the east and unleashed the war in Kosovo. And over the last decade, that is, the first 10 years of this century, the backbone of the development of the situation were serious setbacks suffered by the other superpower, the United States, such as September 11, the Iraq war and the financial crisis.
The Chinese Communist Party on its 17’th Congress, commented on the world situation, considering that the world today is undergoing major changes and major streamlining. Peace and development remain the leitmotif of our era. Demand in the world, the desire to develop and promote cooperation has become an irresistible trend of the times. Multi-polarization of the world is irreversible, economic globalization goes through deepening the scientific and technological revolution is rapidly moving forward, global and regional cooperation is in the process of continuous growth, the relationship between the two countries is getting closer, the ratio of international forces develop in the direction favorable to the defense of peace in world, international situation is generally stable. At the same time, the world still does not stay quite calm. Hegemony and power politics are still alive, and then local conflicts, there are "hot" issues, global economic imbalances exacerbated the gap in the South of the North and growing, traditional security threats are intertwined with non-traditional, peace and development of the planet facing face many complex problems and challenges.
I think we should keep an eye on the international situation and explore it from the perspective of development. It is necessary to study the old to learn something new from the point of view of history. We must learn the laws in order to address the issues from the perspective of dialectic.
Theoretically speaking, the complexity and variability of the world situation dialectically inseparable with the following related factors:
1. The leitmotif of the era of "peace and development" and the fact that "the world is not peaceful"
The leitmotif of the epoch defines the main content of the activities of human society, reflects the basic trend of the era. The leitmotif of our time is "peace and development", it means that the world needs peace; nations must work together, the need for state development and social progress. Possibility of World War outbreak, in the traditional sense has become small, that an important way proved the accuracy of the determination of the keynote. However, unbridled hegemony and power politics, raging terrorism, "hot" issues regarding the territory, resources, ethnicity and religion disturb our peace. Moreover, the daily escalating international competition prevails in the economic, political, military, scientific, technical, cultural, ecological and other spheres. The risk of nuclear proliferation and continues to grow. It is easy to notice that in the world there is a situation that is contrary to the point of view of the end of the Cold War.
2. Multipolar peace and unilateralism
The global architecture means the force exerted by multistage influence on the world community, and the structural state power centers. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States were said to have formed in a bipolar world, at the same time multipolarization has already begun to develop. After the Cold War, the US was the only superpower of the world, though multipolarization continues to grow, so that it became an important confirmation and the rise of new major market economies. The United States by all means pursue unilateral policies, while maintaining a desire to build a unipolar world, but their strength is not kept pace with their own ambition, they had to take on a variety of multilateral cooperation. Despite this, the current world situation is complex and changeable still because of the "hot" issues under the influence of American policy, and international security are still largely influenced interstate relations, the main party of which is the United States.
3. Economic globalization under the domination of the developed world and developing countries
Economic globalization has begun in terms of marketization and informatization together with economic integration and liberalization. Since the free circulation of elements of production throughout the world is mainly carried out within the framework of the capitalist regime, globalization is largely leads to the spread of global capitalism influences. Currently, globalization processes are controlled by some developed countries in the West, who are trying to make globalization a world community controls. Faced with the challenges of economic globalization, developing countries should not sit idly by. It is necessary, admitting diversification models of economic development, efforts to create a unified and open global market, where different interests are balanced and correct discrimination, as well as to the formation and improvement of the system of international rules and accepted practices in the economic activities. Only by accelerating their own economic development, reduction of the difference of their country with the advanced countries of the world in the economic level, effectively ensuring their economic sovereignty and interests of the developing countries will be able to continue to exist and develop.
4. The diversity of the world and democratization of international relations
The peoples of different countries are at different levels of economic development with a variety of cultures, social regimes and concepts of values; continue various forms of life that embodies the diversity of the world. All countries are equal members of the international community, regardless of the size of the territory, the level of wealth and state power. They should respect each other and conduct equal consultation. The democratization of international relations requires that all countries, without exception, to follow the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and other universally recognized rules of international relations. No country has the right to impose their will on someone else. Powers to carry out power politics political hegemony and for the poor countries it is difficult to protect their rights and interests, who created conditions for extremist forces took the path of terrorism. So just in case, to counter all forms of hegemony and power politics, it can go on the democratization of international relations.
5. The principle of "national interests" and "win-win", "winning universal" as the policy guidelines
Tensions and conflicts between countries occur most often due to imbalances of interest. The principles of equality and mutual benefit, and nominated for the balancing of interests, it is the principle of "win-win", "winning the public." Peer counseling for regulating international issues also apply to the principles of equality and mutual benefit. As the elevation of the role of economic factors, it becomes the entire sharper struggle between states for markets and resources. At the same time more and more a trend emerges the desire for cooperation and to achieve complementarity. So the possibility of a favorable interstate cooperation still exists. Such interaction is divided into three units. The initial link - the protection of its own national interests, while respecting others, and both are needed; average - the coexistence of competition and cooperation, contradictions and concessions, moreover, cooperation must be sincere, concessions - reasonable competition - within the rules; final - win-win or universal, and unilateral benefits cannot exist.
6. The peaceful coexistence of nations, and the difference of ideology
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty, non-aggression, non-interference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence) for the first time were made by China in the middle of the last century, in India and Myanmar participated in their propaganda. These principles reflected the strong desire to protect the sovereignty and create a new world order on the part of many countries, which only gained their independence during the collapse of colonialism after World War II. These include an outstanding mind for defense against any external hostile forces using "soft power" and show great driving force from the fact that peace and development have started to turn into a leitmotif of the era. These principles, continuing and developing the spirit of the UN Charter that best summarize the most important foundations of international law and demonstrate the most significant features of international relations of a new type. They are suitable not only for countries with different social regimes, but also with the same regimes. The principles are not part of the ideology and the way to overcome ideological differences and the realization of peaceful coexistence of various countries is the desire for unity in spite of differences.
7. Human rights and state sovereignty
Question of human rights inevitably rises to a certain historical stage of development of human society. The relationship between human rights and sovereignty of the state today is the focus of the struggle against hegemony. After the Cold War the United States in order to achieve world hegemony is increasingly acting as a "champion" of human rights, trying to break the bonds of human rights, national sovereignty in order to absolute human rights.
The Americans, speaking for the elimination or limitation of the sovereignty of the country, are going to build the so-called "new world order", grounded on the theory of "human rights above sovereignty of the state." In fact, human rights still represent the collective rights of the human, that is, people formed personalities, such as the right to self-determination and the right to development, so human rights and national sovereignty are inseparable. Quotes from "human rights above sovereignty" and "humanitarian intervention" misleading nature of the relation of human rights and sovereignty, that is an important feature of the new interventionism and unilateralism after the end of the Cold War.
8. Non-traditional and traditional security
Under traditional security threats are usually referred to the attack on the territory, sovereignty, population, resources and so on. From external enemies, that is, military threats, external aggression, seizure of territory, information intelligence, etc. Non-traditional security threats are increasingly widespread on the territory, resources, politics, economics, military affairs, culture, science and technology, information and ecology, as well as the expansion of diseases, transnational crime, smuggling and drug trafficking, illegal immigration, piracy, money laundering etc. The causes of these threats are both social and natural. Non-traditional threats to security problems are associated with individual countries and with other nations and all humanity. Alternative safety compared with traditional in a broader sense has a social, ethnic, and global character.
The fact that more and more acute non-traditional security threats are rising, has its deeper causes. Problems of non-traditional security threats are invisible in the context of bipolar confrontation, and they loomed after the Cold War. Economic globalization has, of course, contributes to optimal allocation of material resources, which brings more benefits to all countries of the world due to their overall progress. However, it thereby widens the gap of inequality and the gap between rich and poor stimulates internationalization of criminal activities and the formation of a global terrorist network. With respect to non-traditional security threats can not only use military means, and to use the political, economic, diplomatic, legal, scientific and technical methods in an integrated manner. In this regard, the international community should undertake multiform cooperation.
9. The opposition to terrorism and the fight against hegemony
Terrorism is contrary to the passage of time and shows the character of the world. Terrorists take advantage of all sorts of inhuman means to harm the innocent residents, violations of social stability that worries the whole world. Terrorism in a sense, there was not in itself, but under the negative impact of economic globalization and a certain fundamentalism, under certain conditions, for the purpose of revenge hegemony. One cannot fight hegemony by terrorism or to fight back terrorism by hegemony. Forceful opposition to force only reduces morality affected the level of evil instigators, and the case will be involved in a vicious circle.
At present, terrorist network is every day growing and even international terrorism around the globe is gaining. No country alone is able to respond to such a trend. The world community only through consolidation can effectively counter the threats of terrorism. To combat terrorism, it is necessary to resolve the underlying problems. We must at the same time mitigate the tense regional and global environment, eradicate poverty and strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorism, to apply political, economic, cultural and social measures for the final elimination of terrorism.
10. The central position of the United Nations in safeguarding peace and security role of the regional organizations
The United Nations as the core of international multilateral system is an important platform for the realization of multilateralism. On the eve of all sorts of threats and challenges of the UN's role should only be strengthened, not weakened. So it is necessary to persistently uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter continue to show positive role of the UN and its Security Council in the regulation of international issues, the protection of the global world. No single country and no union of states should be used in the international affairs of the United Nations only at the right time and get it when it is not needed.
The UN is subject to rational reform in order to increase efficiency, address the issues of greatest interest to the different parties, the strengthening of the dominant role of the UN in international affairs and improve its ability to counter new threats and challenges, as well as a higher level of reflection in common the call and requests from a large number of developing countries.
Questions of national, regional and global security are intertwined. Under these conditions, the formation of the network is required to protect global peace and security mechanisms. In acute situations the role of the international regional security organizations is rising. It should encourage further strengthening of relations and cooperation between the UN and other international and regional associations improve the multilateral mechanism to facilitate and complement each other of all the structures, the core of which is the United Nations.
Yui Sui, Professor of the Chinese Research Center of "Modern World", a member of the International Academy of Arts and Sciences