Innovative ecosphere of the SCO: An example of the alliance to address global challenges« Back
Russia's economy, like the economies of many other countries, is experiencing a serious crisis, which is, of course, exacerbated by sanctions. The World Economic Forum publishes an annual "Global Competitiveness Report". This report demonstrates the successes and failures of countries, shows the strengths and weaknesses in their economic development, and points out the way for further progressive development. It is known that only by integration state can solve macroeconomic and other problems that characterize the modern development of the productive forces and relations. The SCO countries demonstrate one example of an alliance to jointly address global challenges in the various spheres of human life, in its ecosphere.
Currently, members of the organization are Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. At the upcoming Tashkent summit in June, "six" is to officially become "eight", adding to India and Pakistan.
Many other countries have expressed their desire to become members of the organization. This shows the attractiveness of the SCO, the hopes of its members in the dynamic development.
Various indexes and indicators have now been developed that characterize the state of the economy and other various aspects of life, starting from which it is possible to forecast the interaction of groups of states, as well as individual countries’ steps. One of the most important indicators is competitiveness index. In the last two years country of the SCO criterion are settled as follows: China – 28-th place, Kazakhstan - 50, Russia - 53, Tajikistan - 91, Kyrgyzstan -108 place. Uzbekistan in this ranking is not represented. With regard to the first places Switzerland, Singapore, the United States are placed there.
Competitiveness Index is formed by three groups of factors. The first is - the basic conditions, which are composed of the level of infrastructure, macroeconomic stability, health and primary education, social development and other institutions.
The second group includes the concept of efficiency factors. This includes higher education and training, efficiency of goods markets and labor markets, development of the financial market and its size, as well as technological readiness.
The third group of factors compounds the maturity of the business and innovation.
By innovation, our country took 65-th place in 2014-2015. A detailed examination of the criterion of innovative development of Russia as follows: international patenting - 41 seats, the quality of scientific and research institutions - 56, business expenditure on research and development - 62. According to other indicators of the situation as follows: innovative ability – 66-th place, cooperation between universities and businesses in the field of research and development - 67, the availability of scientists and engineers - 70, government procurement of advanced technology products - 81.
The top ten ranking in terms of global innovation index of the SCO countries do not belong to any one country. Switzerland heads the top ten, and of the SCO member states is above all placed China – 29-th place, Russia - 49, Kazakhstan - 79, Kyrgyzstan - 112, Uzbekistan - 128, Tajikistan - 137.
These data suggest that the SCO member states have unequal economic and innovation level, hence - further co-operation should take this into account, the possibility of differentiating the alliance.
Last year's SCO summit in Ufa went down in history as historically significant by the nature of the adopted documents. In the final declaration of the Ufa SCO Member States were allocated the most significant political, economic and other aspects of mutual relations of the participating countries.
For a harmonious and competitive movement it was suggested to the intensive development of science, technology and innovation, while creating favorable conditions for investment in these areas. Summit participants and experts identified the most important areas of joint activities in the field of energy, industry, and agriculture. Special attention was paid to the quality of life of people, which assumes a high-tech medical care, in-depth research in the field of molecular technologies. All of the above - only a part of the modern challenges of our global society as a whole and within the framework of the SCO, in particular.
Civil society of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization countries instructed their experts to work out proposals for the modernization of the nodal areas, given that innovation - the major mechanism of development. Innovative development institutions are aimed at the goal of attracting investors in innovative projects, including the venture (risk).
An important objective is the assessment of the socio-economic efficiency of innovative projects and support for their grants, loans. Among the priority objectives - support for sectors of the economy, the key to innovation and technological growth, stimulating their capacity for international cooperation. Another important thing is the support of startups with tax breaks and other preferences.
One of the most important innovative development institutions are technological parks, technopolises, innovation city, contributing to acceleration of the commercialization of new ideas and proposals of the scientific and technical communities.
In the Russian Federation hundreds of such institutions were created in Moscow, Kaluga, Kazan, Vladimir, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, etc. As an illustration technopark "Skolkovo" can be examined.
"Skolkovo" innovation center was established in September 2010, and immediately began building partnerships with leading global centers of innovation. In 2011, the office in California was opened; an agreement with IBM was signed.
The core structure of the Innovation center is technopark, which aims at providing the necessary support to the companies participating in the project "Skolkovo" for the successful development of their technological assets and designs. The goal was achieved at the expense of services and other services provided to the technological park: the formation of a team of researchers and developers, intellectual property protection, training of performers and participants in the innovation project management, business processes and the establishment of corporate procedures, and others.
Today Technopark area is 23 sq. meters. Here are situated 33 Centers for collective use, 12-service business, 19 accredited suppliers. On the territory of the technological park 95 companies are allocated. The total number of participants in the project is more than a thousand.
One of the partners of "Skolkovo" is China, which has a high level of innovation centers. Beijing Zhongguancun was established in 1988 is the largest science park of the world (the area -. 230 sq km). There are more than 22 thousand companies, and about a million people are working there. The total turnover is $ 80 billion. China has adopted a system of separation of technological parks in scale and an opportunity to promote innovative projects. They point out a university, provincial (regional) and national levels.
Among other SCO countries one would like to give an example of Kazakhstan. With the introduction of technology parks, there are about ten, they are assigned status on levels of exposure to the elements and members of the research system: the national science and technology parks; regional technology parks.
Among the national science and technology parks are identified the following training: Information Technology Park in Alatau; National Industrial Petrochemical Technology Park (Atyrau); Technology Park of Nuclear Technologies "Tokamak" (Kurchatov); space monitoring technology park (Messrs. Almaty, Astana, Priozersk).
National parks are focused on the creation in Kazakhstan of new disciplines and industries, which should promote the competitiveness of Kazakhstan's economy in the global market.
Regional parks, including the Almaty Technology Park, Technopark "Algorithm" in Uralsk, Technopark "Business Citi" in Karaganda, are created for the purpose of identification and development of innovative potential of the region.
It is important to note that 3 of the 10 industrial parks are located within universities; the remaining 7 are operating on the territory of industrial enterprises and research centers.
Mixed ownership structure observed in the industrial parks of Kazakhstan; public and private sectors jointly participate in the organization of park activities. Kazakhstan has established guidelines for the creation of specialized centers of innovative development, for example, the main specialization of biotechnology technopark "Progress" - grain processing and production of medicines. Technology Park of Nuclear Technologies "Tokamak" (Republican State Enterprise "National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan") specializes in applied research in the field of nuclear technology, physics, and chemistry. Specialty PIT (pos.Alatau) - equipment for the sub-sectors of information technology.
Analyzing the level of development of innovative development institutes in other countries of the SCO, we can say that they are also giving attention to them, but it is, of course, commensurate with the scale of China's activities in this area.
Analysis of possible cooperation in the sphere of innovation is pushing to improval of bilateral relations in this sphere. The "six" plus two (Pakistan and India) absolute innovation development leaders - China and Russia can be distinguished. We have identified the development of innovative models that can be taken into account when shaping relations with the SCO countries. The first option is the inertia; the second is the export-oriented, and the third - investment and active. A detailed analysis of the regional development institutions’ opportunities demonstrates the capacity, as a rule, the solution of local problems, with preferential state funding and attracting local private business. Regional technological parks often reflect the interests of local producers and focused on specific goals. National levels of TP, as a rule, talk about the ambition of companies ("Skolkovo"), solving problems with high government budget financing and the desire to attract business in the form of public-private partnership.
For more in-depth development of bilateral relations in the format of the SCO countries we proposed the creation of international institutions of innovative development. They are aimed at addressing global challenges, such as in the field of ecology, the science of life, energy saving, the search for alternative energy sources, nanotechnology. That would bring the society to the level of the sixth technological order. The establishment of such organizational structures will require the inclusion of international financial funds for the maintenance of the priority projects and multinational companies for the practical implementation and introduction of advanced technologies in the life
Of course, every project has its pros and cons. The one is not without flaws possible. However, there are powerful advantages - they include the synergy of research, education, and development, cultural exchange, which can be considered as an element of public diplomacy. As for cons, it is - a leak of scientific and technical information and leak of personnel etc. However, if the basis takes positive components, then the proposal related to the globalization of the SCO issue of innovative development, could significantly change the quality of life, accelerate scientific and technological progress in all the SCO countries. And that, ultimately, will lead to an increase in the degree of harmonization of civil society.
It is important to note that the movement of each other in the indicated direction has already begun. "We are no longer able to speak separately on Russian technology, the French innovation, the Spanish energy sector, US databases. You develop technology here, working on its design there, and the final goods are produced even in a third country and the economy has become global. Such a platform that brings together people from around the world is vital, "- the general director of the International Association of science parks Luis Sans.
Negotiations on the construction of the Chineese-Russian Technopark in Skolkovo are going with Beijing Tusparkom. This is a huge scientific quarter of Beijing area in the north of 7 square km. Tuspark is at Technology Park of Beijing's oldest university; the University of Tsynhua turned 104 years and is now experiencing a new stage of its development and has high hopes for joint projects with "Skolkovo".
China has widely promoted the scheme interaction between state and society in innovation: union of policy, science and capital. This principle is the most effective and can be used on the site of the SCO in the sphere of innovative development of the member states of the Organization.
One would like to sum up the above:
1) The course of the Ufa the SCO summit (2015) on the development of innovative development institutes is an integral part of the international activities of the Russian Federation and its subjects.
2) SCO member countries have different levels of economic development and innovation that dictates consideration of their capabilities in the implementation of international cooperative agreements under the Declaration of Ufa.
3) China and Russia have accumulated extensive experience in innovative development, which must be used in the community scale.
4) Innovation Community in the form of international technological parks is a new round of development of civil society, has a positive effect on the harmonization of the social relations of the SCO member countries.
Shamil Gantsev, Sergei Nikonorov, Public Scientific and Technical Council of Technopark "Skolkovo", the Economics Faculty of Moscow State University.